Childhood Cancer, Gynecological Cancer, Leukemia, Lymphoma, Ovarian Cancer, Prostate Cancer, and Thyroid Cancer Awareness Month

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Childhood Cancer

In the United States alone in 2109, an estimated 11,060 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed among children from birth to 14 years old, and about 1,190 children are expected to die from the disease. Although cancer death rates for this age group have declined by 65% from 1970 to 2016, cancer remains the leading cause of death from disease among children. The most common types of cancer diagnosed in children ages 0-14 years are leukemias, brain and other central nervous system (CNS) tumors, and lymphomas.

Children’s cancers are not always treated like adult cancers. Pediatric oncology is a medical specialty focused on the care of children with cancer. It’s important to know that this expertise exists and that there are effective treatments for many childhood cancers.

There are many types of cancer treatment. The types of treatment that a child with cancer receives will depend on type of cancer and how advanced it is. Common treatments include: surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, and stem cell transplant. For more information about Childhood Cancer, click HERE.

(Source: American Cancer Society)

Gynecologic Cancer

Gynecologic cancer is any cancer that starts in the woman’s reproductive organs. Different types of Gynecologic cancer are cervical cancer, ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, and vulvar cancer. Each gynecologic cancer is unique, with different signs of symptoms, different risk factors (things that may increase your chance of getting a disease), and different prevention strategies. All women are at risk for gynecologic cancers, and risk increases with age. When gynecologic cancers are found early, treatment is most effective.

Gynecologic cancers are treated in several ways. It depends on the kind of cancer and how far it has spread. Treatments include surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Women with gynecologic cancer often get more than one kind of treatment. Different kinds of treatment such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation are the most common. For more information on Gynecologic Cancer, click HERE.

(Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)

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Leukemias are cancers that start in cells that wold normally develop into different types of blood cells. Most often, leukemia start in early forms of white blood cells, but some leukemias start in other blood cell types.

There are several types of leukemia, which are divided based mainly on whether the leukemia is acute (fast growing) or chronic (slower growing), and whether it starts in myeloid cells or lymphoid cells. Knowing the specific type of leukemia helps doctors better predict each person’s prognosis (outlook) and select best treatment. For more information on Leukemia, click HERE.

(Source: American Cancer Society)


Lymphoma is cancer that starts in cells that are part of the body’s immune system. Knowing what type of lymphoma you have is important because it affects your treatment options and your outlook (prognosis). There are two main types of lymphomas; Hodgkin lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. They behave, spread, and respond to treatment differently, so it’s important to know which one you have.

Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL): Classic Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) accounts for more than 9 in 10 cases of Hodgkin lymphoma in developed countries. The cancer cells in cHL are called Reed-Sternberg cells. Enlarged lymph nodes in people with cHL usually have a small number of Reed-Sternberg cells with a lot of normal immune cells around them. These other immune cells cause most of the swelling in the lymph nodes.

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer that start in white blood cells called lymphocytes, which are part of the body’s immune system. NHL most often affects adults, but children can get it too. While NHL usually starts in lymph nodes or other lymph tissue, it can sometimes affect the skin.

To learn more about Hodgkin Lymphoma and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, click HERE.

(Source: American Cancer Society)

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Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancers were previously believed to begin only in the ovaries, but recent evidence suggests that many ovarian cancers may actually start in the cells in the far (distal) end of the fallopian tubes. The ovaries are mainly made up of 3 kinds of cells. Each type of cell can develop into a different type of tumor; Epithelial tumors, Germ cell tumors, and Stromal tumors. Some of these tumors are benign (non-cancerous) and never spread beyond the ovary. Malignant (cancerous) or borderline (low malignant potential) ovarian tumors can spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body and can be fatal.

The risk of developing ovarian cancer gets higher with age. Ovarian cancer is rare in women younger than 40. Most ovarian cancers develop after menopause. Half of all ovarian cancers are found in women 63 years of age or older. Ovarian cancer can run in families. Your ovarian cancer risk is increased if your mother, sister, or daughter has (or has had) ovarian cancer. The risk also gets higher the more relatives you have with ovarian cancer. Increased risk for ovarian cancer can also come from your father’s side.

To review more extensive information on Ovarian cancer, click HERE.

(Source: American Cancer Society)

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland start to grow uncontrollably. The prostate is a gland only found in males. Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas (cancer that forms in mucus-secreting glands through the body). These cancers develop from the gland cells (the cells that make the prostate fluid that is added to the semen). Other types of prostate cancers include; Sarcomas, Small cell carcinomas, Neuroendocrine tumors (other than small cell carcinomas), and Transitional cell carcinomas. These other types of prostate cancer are rare. If you have prostate cancer it is almost certain to be adenocarcinoma.

Some prostate cancers can grow and spread quickly, but most grow slowly. In fact, autopsy studies show that many older men (and even some younger men) who dies of other causes also had prostate cancer that never affected them during their lives. In many cases neither they nor their doctors even knew they had it. Some research suggests that prostate cancer starts out as a pre-cancerous condition, although this is not yet known for sure. These conditions are sometimes found when a man has a prostate biopsy (removal of small pieces of the prostate to look for cancer).

Prostate cancer is rare in men younger than 40, but the chance of having prostate cancer rises rapidly after age 50. About 6 in 10 cases of prostate cancer are found in men older than 65. Prostate cancer occurs more often in African-American men and in Caribbean men of African ancestry than in men of other races. African-American men are also more than twice as likely to die of prostate cancer as white men. Prostate cancer occurs less often in Asian-American and Hispanic/Latino men than in non-Hispanic whites. The reason for these racial and ethnic differences is unclear.

For more information about Prostate Cancer, click HERE.

(Source: American Cancer Society)

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Thyroid Cancer

Thyroid cancer is a type of cancer that starts in the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland makes hormones that help regulate your metabolism, heart rate, blood pressure, and body temperature. The thyroid gland has 2 main types of cells; Follicular cells and C cells. Other, less common cells in the thyroid gland include immune system cells (lymphocytes) and supportive (stromal) cells. Different cancer develop from each kind of cell. The differences are important because they affect how serious the cancer is and what type of treatment is needed. Many types of growths and tumors can develop in the thyroid gland. Most of these are benign (non-cancerous) but others are malignant (cancerous), which means they can spread into nearby tissues and to other parts of the body.

For unclear reasons thyroid cancers (like almost all diseases of the thyroid) occur about 3 times more often in women than in men. Thyroid cancer can occur at any age, but the risks peaks earlier for women (who are most often in their 40s or 50s when diagnosed) than for men (who are usually in their 60s or 70s). Several inherited conditions have been linked to different types of thyroid cancer, as has family history. Still, most people who develop thyroid cancer do not have an inherited condition or a family history of the disease.

For more information about Thyroid cancer, click HERE.

(Source: American Cancer Society)